# Parallel, Series, Shading and Diodes

This is a subject that repeatedly comes up in debates, we often have solar panels in parallel, and adding diodes into the chat seems to fuel the confusion as well. And aren’t blocking diodes built into all solar panels these days anyway? Or is it in the regulators? And is it better in series? Well the answer is yes, sort-of, no and maybe – but not necessarily in that order.

Okay, let’s see if we can sort this out a bit. In the spirit of The 12Volt Blog we’ll call on some cool calm science, and untangle things a bit. We’ll start with the diodes – they’re a pretty simple device and we’ll also cover regulators, so that’ll get us going. Solar panels in parallel and series is a really important topic though, especially if they’re shaded, so we’ll leave the best till last.

## Diodes, Regulators, and Solar Panels

A solar panel consists of a number of cells in series, which makes up a total voltage of around 17 to 23 Volts for a 12Volt panel. There’s more detail on this in Solar Panels & Regulators but for now, we’ll just emphasise that the two panels in parallel must have the same voltages – within a volt or two for the Peak and Open-Circuit voltages. For series connections the panels must be the same wattage, otherwise there’s an imbalance

I think most of us know that **Diodes** allow current to flow in just one direction, and that can come in handy in 12Volt setups. Like most things in life it also comes at a price – and that price is a 0.6Volt drop, or a bit less if we choose a Schottky diode. So if we put diodes into a circuit, they need to be doing something useful for us.

There are two functions a diode can perform in 12Volt solar systems – either as a **blocking-diode** or as a **bypass-diode**.

#### Blocking Diode

When a solar panel is shaded, the output current reduces dramatically, and when it’s dark it actually absorbs current. This is a real problem at night, because we could lose all the power we gained during the day. This is where the blocking diode comes in, and its one-way properties means it will only allow current to flow out of the panel, but not back into it. Yes, we will lose 0.6V over the diode in the process, but that’s a heck-of-a-lot better than losing power all through the night.

Well that’s how it was done in the early days of solar panels, nowadays this function is taken care of by the regulator[1]. The regulator simply monitors the solar input, and when it dips below a certain threshold, it just disconnects the solar panel from the rest of the circuit. That way no power can leak back to the panel, so we’ve got the same function as the blocking diode but without the 0.6Volt drop – pretty neat, hey? The diagram alongside shows how this is done inside a well-known brand of PWM regulator, using a day-night switch.

So now we can comfortably say that the vast majority of **modern regulators don’t need a blocking diode**. And that holds true for panels in series or parallel as well.

So now to that second function of a diode that could be useful to us.

#### Bypass Diode

As we noted before, each panel is made up of a series connection of solar cells – for a 12Volt panel it’s typically got 36 cells – each cell is around 0.6Volts and that jives up with the open-circuit and maximum power voltages we mentioned before. Have a look at Solar Panels and Regulators if you need more on that.

Now that 0.6Volts sounds suspiciously like the diode voltage we came across before – yep – in fact if you break open a large transistor, you’ll see a silicon wafer in there. What’s more, if you get some sunlight onto it, you’ll get about 0.6V output and some current too. So in its most basic form, each solar cell is similar to a diode – it’s just been tweaked a bit to maximise its output when exposed to the sun.

So that gets us back to the solar panel, with its series string of these solar cells. What happens if one of those cells in the series string gets shaded? Well it’s a bit like the old-style Xmas lights – if one goes out, they all go out – because they are in a series string.

Because the solar cells are in series, a drop in current in one or more cells will cause the current in the whole panel to drop. This is again where diodes can help us.

If we now put a diode over each cell in the panel, then **if one cell is shaded** the total voltage will drop by 0.6V but the current from the other cells will still get through, because **the diode allows the current to bypass the shaded cell**. So to combat this shading problem for a typical 12Volt panel, this would mean 36 bypass diodes, one over each cell.

As far as I’m aware, only one manufacturer ever made panels like that – UniSolar – and their panels were well known as the most shade-tolerant around. This however made them expensive, and in 2012 they unfortunately went out of business.

These days **most 12Volt panels are fitted with just 2 bypass diodes**, with the panel effectively divided into 2 halves. So if just one half is shaded, then the output of that half drops, but the other half keeps going. In practical terms however this also means that the overall voltage is halved, so even for an open-circuit voltage of 22Volts, shading one half brings us down to 11Volts, which is not really that helpful in a 12Volt system. So the short answer is: **shading very quickly drops the output of our solar panels**, but the 2 bypass diodes do help a bit.

#### Shading and Multiple Solar Panels

So, what to do about this **shading problem**? Well having **multiple panels** could help – if I have two panels then it’s less likely both will be shaded at the same time, especially if I can mount them a distance apart.

But what happens to the solar output? Do I actually get the combined output of the two panels, or does one pull the other down? And should they be in parallel or in series?

As we promised at the beginning of the post – this is where it gets “interesting” – and we need to haul out some electrical theory to help us. Let’s see how some examples can help in practical terms.

### Parallel and Series Panels

Actually, rather than bore everyone to tears with the theory and calculations, I’ve created a heading below **For the Technically Minded** – for those of us who are excited by such things. For the rest of us, who find their eyelids drooping at that sort of thing, we’ll keep this first bit for the results of those examples, and what the practical outcomes actually mean to the real-world camper.

We’ll start off by setting the scene for the examples by using just two panels, and they are both 12Volt panels of the same wattage. One is shaded, and the other is in full sun. The shaded one is giving us a short-circuit current of 1 Amp, while the sunny one is delivering a nice 5Amps at short-circuit, which is typical of a panel around 80 Watts.

#### Panels in Parallel

If we now place the **two panels in parallel**, the short answer is that **the currents add up**, so we will have 6 Amps available at the input of our regulator. So what does that mean in practical terms?

Well we have two panels, each one 80 Watts. Instead we could have opted for one big 160 Watt panel – same output, right? Well yes and no. If the 160W panel was in the sun, it would give us the same as 2 x 80W panels in the sun, namely 10 Amps at short-circuit. The difference comes when we have shade, like in this example.

If the 160W panel is even partially shaded, its output will drop off quickly, to the same extent that the shaded 80W panel did, except twice the current because it’s twice as big, so it would give us a short-circuit current of 2 Amps.

With the 2 x 80W panels, with one of them (half the total area) shaded we have our 6 Amps scenario above. So the short answer is that we’re getting 3 times the current from 2 half-size panels than we would from one full-size panel. So **for shading, it’s always better to go for 2 smaller panels rather than one big one**.

With panels in parallel we can use either a PWM or MPPT regulator – there will be little difference – except in price. There’s more on this in Solar Panels & Regulators.

#### Panels in Series

Let’s now look at connecting the two 80W panels in series – one shaded, the other in the sun. As we show in detail below (For the Technically Minded) the open-circuit voltage stays pretty much the same when the panel is shaded, and we’ve used 22Volts in this example.

So for a series connection the voltages add up, and a typical 12Volt panel’s open-circuit voltage would double to 44 Volts. So for a 12Volt system, our **only option is an MPPT regulator for series panels**.

With this kind of voltage the first thing to look for is the maximum solar input voltage that the MPPT can handle. Many DC-DC chargers (with solar input) won’t be able to handle that sort of voltage, so check the specs carefully before connecting anything up.

Now, what about the shading issue? Does series give us the same benefit? Well using our 2 x 80W panels, one shaded and one not, the detail workings below show a seriously reduced solar output. The series connection gives us just over half of the output that the parallel connection did.

So, when we are looking at **shading, parallel wins hands down**. Of course there may be other factors that sway the decision towards series connection – for instance a fixed off-grid installation that has a long cable run from the panels to the regulator and batteries, and in that case the savings in cable size could make a lot of sense.

Well unless you’re into the technical detail, that’s it! – Diodes, Regulators, Series and Parallel – and hopefully the facts we’ve gone through here helps to untangle the many confusions out there. In any case, we always welcome discussion, so please leave a comment if something doesn’t seem to make sense.

### For the Technically Minded

So, one 80W panel in the sun giving us 5A and the shaded one giving us 1A – it seems logical that the 2 currents will simply be added – but is that right? What if the shaded panel drags the unshaded one down, so that we get less current than we thought? Just because it sounds logical to add them, doesn’t mean it’s right. So how can we be sure?

Well in The 12Volt Blog we go to the science – and fortunately it has heaps to say about putting things in series and parallel. But before we put anything in series or parallel, we’ll need to look at the behaviour of solar panels when they’re shaded, and check that the currents we’ve chosen make sense, and also to see what happens to the open-circuit voltage when the panel’s shaded.

The STC[2] for panels is 1000W/m^{2} and in the IV-curve here that’s the dark blue line at the top – this represents full sunlight. As the solar intensity (W/m^{2}) decreases it’s clear that the current reduces proportionally – on the 1000W/m^{2} curve it’s just above 5A, and on the 200W/m^{2} curve (20% of full sun, yellow) the current is about 1 Amp, so 20% of the current under full sun. This confirms that** the currents we have chosen accurately represent full-sun and shaded conditions** for our panels.

For the open-circuit voltage, this is when the current is zero, and is therefore the point at which all the graphs converge on the x-axis. It is clear that even though the 5 coloured graphs represent a 5:1 range of solar intensities, the open-circuit voltage varies very little. For practical purposes there will be a negligible error if we assume the **open-circuit voltage is constant for sunny and shaded conditions**. Because we are using 12Volt panels in this example we will use an open-circuit voltage of 22Volts.

Now comes the neat trick – it does get a bit mathsy, so hold on tight – I’ll even draw you some pictures.

#### Converting from a Voltage-source to a Current-source

In electrical calculations there are two basic ways of representing a power-supply – either as a voltage-source, or a current-source. This allows us to calculate power-supplies in series and in parallel.

The first diagram shows how the one format can be converted to the other using Ohm’s Law (see Electrical Basics for detail). They are exactly the same power-supply, just formatted differently.

The Voltage Source makes it easy to combine power-supplies in series – they just add together. And the Current Source format makes it easy to combine power-supplies that are in parallel – we just add the currents together. And the short-form for parallel is //.

In the second drawing we start putting our two panels in parallel. On the left is the one in full sun, on the right is the shaded one, both have the same open-circuit voltage (Voc) but the shaded one has less current, and a higher value for R.

When we put them in parallel, I’ve shifted the current-sources to the left and the resistors to the right – with a parallel circuit we can do that – they all still have the same connections to the positive and negative.

So we can see in the next drawing that the two currents simply add up, while the resistors are in parallel. Two parallel resistors, like we have here, can be combined into a single resistor using a well-used formula (google it if you like) that multiplies the two resistors above the line, and adds them below. So we get (96.8/26.4) = 3.67Ω for the resistor and 6A for the current, as shown on the left.

Now for the last conversion, moving from left to right in the drawing, we get it back to a voltage-source format so we can calculate the Watts of the two panels. So with Watts = Volts x Amps, we get a total of 132 Watts for the case where we have our two panels in parallel.

Now let’s see what sort of output we get when we put those two same panels in series.

Like before we start off with both panels in the current-source format, but for a series connection we now convert them to voltage-sources, so we can just add the voltages and resistances.

Unsurprisingly we get a voltage source of 22V which is the open-circuit voltage of the panels. To get a series configuration we connect the middle two terminals – a positive from the one below (shade) to the negative from the one above (sun) – that’s the little double-line making that series connection.

So the final bit is simply adding the two voltages and the two resistors, as shown in the final drawing. So for this series configuration we get a total of 44V which is also beyond the capability of many DC-DC converters, so a word of caution on that.

Converting this to the current-source format again allows us to calculate the Watts we get from this series arrangement and it is immediately obvious who’s won this contest.

Compared to the series configuration, the parallel connection gives us nearly double the output when we have one panel shaded – wow!

That makes the decision really easy – **to get maximum output in shaded conditions, it’s parallel all the way!**

And to those of you that are still reading all the way down here – congrats! That was a bit of a marathon wasn’t it?!

Anyway, now we know we are not just basing our decisions on what we think, or hope, or assume – and if anyone disagrees with this stuff, then it’s not me they’ll be disagreeing with, but with the likes of Monsieur Ampere, Georg Ohm, Alessandro Volta, and even James Watt!

Nice to stand behind giants like that…

[1] Some basic regulators still require a blocking diode e.g. Plasmatronics PR Series Mini Regulators

[2] STC: Standard Test Conditions for solar panels. For more on this see Solar Panels & Regulators

## Speak Your Mind

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## 10 Comments

Rudy De VolderEver heard of idéal diodes? They have almost no voltage drop, only several millivolts. They are made of MOSFET transistors. And they function just like a diode. But the power loss is almost 0 watts. If your diode has a voltage drop of 0.6 volts and the current is 20 amps you have a loss of 0.6 x 20 = 12 watts per diode.

You can find easily these ideal diodes on Aliexpress. Actually they are small circuits, so you must put them in a waterproof box.

alistairHi Rudy,

Ideal Diodes? – nope, first time I’ve heard of them, so thanks for this info – went looking on the ‘net and there is heaps of info out there. Not sure how they’d go as a blocking diode on a solar panel though – the MOSFETs need a power-supply, but the only power we have is the panel itself… will have to puzzle over that a bit to see if it could work.

You’re spot-on about the power saving though, so it would be worth investigating.

Thanks again for the tip!

Cheers,

Alistair

PS: took me a while to work out how you have a Belgian email, but an IP address in the Philippines (have to be careful of spam on the 12Volt Blog) – anyway, all checks out, no worries, enjoy your retirement!

Pete JonesHi Alistair,

thanks for a super informative article.

I’ve just bought 10 very nice little glass 10W panels ( nominally 12V) which seem to be really good quality, giving 10 – 20% more output short circuit current than stated on the label These panels have a good quality connection box on the rear with a 4 screw lid with gasket. I’ve opened them up, and the twin wire is connected directly to the panel output without any blocking diode.

I intend to connect all the panels together in parallel to give a nominal 100W ( the reason for the small output panels rather than one or two larger ones, was because they were (new other) and very good value!

Even though I’ll be using a PWM charge controller, I was intending to use a Schottky blocking diode on each panel to obviate any imbalance between the individual panels, just wondering if this is really necessary?

I’ve fitted a couple of the panels with a diode by interrupting the connection inside the connector box, I’m assuming that this will be OK despite the possible high temperature, as panels with bypass diodes seem to be fitted in this way? Would external connections be preferable do you think ?

Thanks again for the great article

regards…Pete

alistairHi Pete,

Thanks for the kind words – glad you enjoyed this rather complex blog article!

Let’s start with the last questions first – fitting the diodes in the connector box is fine and choosing a Schottky diode tells me you know your stuff (lower voltage drop) so I’ll answer the rest accordingly.

So, are the diodes necessary? – well not strictly speaking, but you’re only losing 0.5V @ <1A, so theoretically less than 5% of the power. I say theoretically, because with a PWM you can't really use any excess panel voltage above battery voltage (11-14V). This means the diodes won't really hurt your output much in practical terms, and the balancing effect you are aiming at is worth having.

So, while we're having fun with this, and because the blog article includes shading, here are 2 questions/ experiments you could try.

First, it would be interesting to compare the maximum output from your 10 panels, with and without the diodes - that would give you a good idea of how valid my theoretical thumb-suck of 5% is, in practical terms.

Second, with the diodes in the circuit of your 10 panels, I reckon you have one of the best shade-tolerant 100W panels around! Without the diodes, if you shade one of the panels completely (e.g. with a blanket) then that panel will actually draw power from the other 9, which is a serious loss. But with the diodes in the circuit, the shaded panel cannot draw any power - short answer, you win! So try this shading experiment with and without the diodes - and my money is on those diodes proving their worth when dealing with this sort of partial shading of your 10-panel array.

So, thanks again for a great series of questions - good fun!

Cheers,

Alistair

JmanHi, Is there a limitation to the number of 12V panels that can be in series? Will the higher voltage damage the inside diodes of each panels? thanks

alistairHi Jman,

First off, good question!

Most diodes can handle a pretty hefty reverse voltage – for instance the diode pictured in this blog article can handle up to 1000 Volts! – so with a 12V panel able to produce a maximum of about 23 Volts, this means you’d need over 40 panels before you manage to blow that diode.

Most likely, before the diodes blow, the panels themselves would start to complain – and for that voltage limit you’d need to go into the detail specs of the solar panels.

So, short answer – most of us probably won’t see a panel diode blow up because of too many panels in series – but it’s still a really fun question!

Cheers,

Alistair

DavidHello, Tnx for the article, got me thinking, complex subject.

I’m confused by modeling the Solar panels as either current-sources or voltage sources. You choose the series or parallel resistances based on (not too variable) Voc and highly variable with irradiance Isc.

1. Since Voc and Isc by definition occur under very different circumstance (open-circuit vs. short-circuit), why choose the resistor based on these different circumstances?

2. Modeling a solar panel as a current-source with a parallel resistor, or voltage-source with series resistor results in a V-I curve with a straight-line from 0,0 and slope of 1/ R. This doesn’t look anything like a typical solar panel V-I curve. What am I missing?

Thanks in advance!

alistairHi David,

First off, apologies for the delay in posting your comment and replying – during the summer holidays here in Oz we’ve been travelling to places without internet – the most interesting places are typically like that!

Then to your questions, both of them excellent, and quite tricky too (serves me right for getting technical!).

You are quite right that Isc varies with irradiance – in fact it’s pretty much linear – whereas Voc stays fairly constant.

1. The value of the resistor is based on the electrical circuit theory that underpins the conversion from one source to the other, rather than the solar panel’s characteristics.

2. The theory-based model looks at two extremes of the solar panel – either open-circuit, or short-circuit – and there are limits to how far the theoretical model can describe a real-world panel, but usually those limits are good enough to make the theory useful for our calculations. For instance a theoretical current source can supply its given current to any load, now matter what the voltage is that we need to achieve that. Clearly that’s just not possible in the real world (either with a solar panel or any other type of current source) – and in the solar panel’s case, the limit of its voltage capability is Voc.

You clearly have a good understanding of electrical stuff, so you may be interested in reading up further. If so, there is a pretty comprehensive piece of work in Wikibooks on Electrical Circuit Theory, although any book that mentions Kirchoff, Norton and Thevenin would also be a good source of info. The Wikibook is also downloadable as a pdf which is really handy.

Hope this makes sense – if not, let’s chat some more!

Cheers,

Alistair

alistairHi Troy,

Wow, this is a really interesting system – glad the 12Volt Blog has been useful so far!

And I totally agree – theory can be useful, but only if we can plug it into real-world situations!

So – the combination of series-parallel is good – usually done as a number of series strings, which are then each placed in parallel.

And yes, the higher the voltage, the smaller the cable – and cheaper! – definitely on the right track there.

BUT: most MPPTs can only handle a maximum input voltage from the panels of 150 Volts, even the good ones (take a look at Morningstar’s professional series). So each series-string has to have an open-circuit voltage less than that (plus 10% safety margin) so about 135V max.

Now if you compare that to the AC voltage of 120V in Canada, then creating a midway powerhouse might not make so much sense. It might pay you to keep it DC all the way to the house, and then place the powerhouse where its easier to build.

About shading – you’re doing the right thing by getting the panels up into the sun – and shading will largely be short-term, and the MPPT will compensate for it anyway.

Not quite sure how much power you were looking at, but just a point on battery voltage. The higher you go, the more solar power you can handle. Again, have a look at the Morningstar datasheet for the 60Amp MPPT – going with a 24V battery will mean a maximum of 1600W of panels, whereas raising the battery voltage to 48V will mean the same 60A regulator can handle 3200W of panels.

To elaborate on Volt-drop calcs you can use the calculator in the blogpost “how to avoid volt-drop”. For example if you have the maximum of 3200W panels, and if the open-circuit voltage is 135V, then the current will be (3200W/135V) = 24 Amps. Using your 100ft length (30m) means that even using just 6mm cable (AWG 10) will mean less than 6V drop, which is less than 5% – all good. This example can be reworked for your actual situation.

Well, that’s quite a bit to digest – hope it makes sense – otherwise let’s chat some more!

Cheers,

Alistair

TroyThanks for the enlightening article. It really opened my eyes as I was not aware of this issue.

What concerns me is real world scenario. Theory is great, but often enough, when paired with real world scenario, it may not be as black and white as it appears on paper.

I know you touched on this issue before in other posts of yours, but I’d like to expand on that here.

We live offgrid in the mountains of BC, Canada. We are stationary. We have bottom of the valley with parts of a hill above us. The hill is already sparsely treed due to deforestation decades ago. We are planning to put the panels there, as we will get far far more sun exposure than on the bottom of the valley.

That being said, we will need to run about 100′ of DC cable from the solar panels to the power shack, where the batteries will reside. This is the closest we can build the powershack, since building it on the hill itself is problematic.

In the powershack will be the batteries, solar charger (regulator), inverter, etc. From then on, an AC line will run down to the valley.

You see, at 100′ voltage losses start to really really kick in. And cables are damn expensive too. So pairing up the solar panels in series, and then in parallel to achieve let’s say 150 or even 300V is something we will be desiring, because it will allow us to do a combination of thinner cable (less expensive) and/or less voltage drop.

I understand you will likely concur with me that in these scenarios going combination of series/parallel makes sense. And that is often why panels are put in this combo in the first place.

But here is the real world scenario: panels in full sun vs panels in shade. Given that nobody places panels across tens of feet between themselves to avoid potential shading of a whole bunch of panels, what is the LIKELYHOOD of a bank of several panels where some of them will be shaded while others will be in full sun? From my experience, either all will be shaded or none. Because the clouds in the sky are big enough and the footprint of the panels small enough that hardly will it happen for protracted period of time where some of the panels connected in series would be shaded while others would be in full sun.

This is what I have observed. Given that we will be using a combination of series/parallel, that means further that only portion of our panels are in series. So to get to a point where only some of the panels connected in series would be shaded while others in the series are not – and for a duration of tens of minutes – I think that is very unlikely scenario.

For this reason, I would recommend one ought to really try to do a hybrid of series/parallel to achieve optimal voltage (so as to reduce voltage drop) paired with good MMPT charger which then brings the voltage down to the battery level. That is, unless you have a very simple setup like few panels atop an RV, in which case, yeah, I’d consider all parallel (again if only your battery bank is 12V; if you wire it for 24V, you’re out of luck and need to put some panels in series already)

Thoughts?